The universal language for society at the time was Latin. It was used almost everywhere, so that almost everyone could communicate with ease. Because of the sudden burst in intellectual curiosity, there were many books and other works that were written in Latin. There were, however, many works that were done in the vernacular or local language. This came about because of the desire for more entertaining ways of creative writing.
A popular form of this entertainment was Troubadour poetry, which mostly came from noblemen. It normally centered around the topic of a knight's love of a lady, and how his will to be better was affected by that love. This poetry began in southern France and continued to flourish- making its way to north France as well as Italy and Germany.
The Heroic Epic
Another name for a heroic epic, a chanson de geste, began to emerge as a likable way to entertain. One of the earliest examples was the Chansons de Roland, a magnificent work that was intended to get men to fight in the Crusades. That is why most of these heroic epics were written for men. Most of these include wars and political struggles. These poems often inspired men to be bigger than life and to strive to become like the characters.
The Courtly Romance
Along with chanson de geste poetry came another, lighter, and softer form: courtly romance. These poems were written in the style of rhyming couplets, and the content included knights, damsels in distress, magicians, palaces, fairies, talking animals, and wondrous woods. One topic in particular- King Arthur- became a popular topic to include in a courtly romance poem. These are the different forms of poetry that sprung up in society as a form of pleasurable entertainment.